Trajectories and social relations: urban area as a resource and a constraint

Nathalie Chauvac ; Fanny Hugues.
What does the place of residence change in the trajectory of a person who grows up or lives there, in terms of access to employment, career path? Access to employment is based on the social relations available to family and friends or on the intervention of professionals from training or support organisations, particularly at the start of a career or when a career changes direction (Chauvac 2013).Career choices are also linked to family and friends, with family and friends providing resources to find information, make contacts or receive encouragement, but also models or counter-models, influences, support or constraints (Bidart 2008). The place of residence conditions the wider environment, and can therefore have an impact on an individual's trajectory.Research conducted on the trajectories of people who grew up and/or still live in a urban area qualified as a priority in the sense of urban policy shows that they denounce an effect of assignment to low-skilled or precarious jobs, the mourning of major jobs (Zunigo 2008) and a phenomenon of discrimination. They consider that "the urban area" is a strong explanatory factor of the difficulties and obstacles encountered, more than a resource, even if this may also be the case. Analyzing pathways by taking into account social relations enables us to understand how this "urban area" effect is constructed, but also how the accumulation of social and economic difficulties that characterize the situation of the inhabitants of a […]

The role of farmer collectives developing territorialized supply chains on the agroecological transition trajectories of farms: analysis using the quantified narratives method

Alice Gillerot ; Philippe Jeanneaux ; Etienne Polge.
Collective action among farmers is regularly presented as a driver for the adoption of agroecological practices on farms. This study proposes to extend the analysis of relational drivers in the implementation of changes in practices beyond peer groups, by looking at their collective organization around territorialized supply chains involving other actors. More specifically, this paper proposes to study the role that this collective organization around territorial supply chains plays in the changes toward agroecological practices carried out on farms.The study of the individual farm trajectories as a chain of events is an approach that allows the understanding and analysis of changes in practices. As we are interested in coordination mechanisms based on interactions between actors as a driver for agroecological transition, we mobilize the framework and tools of social network analysis. In particular, in order to analyse the relational drivers in the trajectories of changes practices, we mobilize the relational chain approach through the method of quantified narratives. This approach allows us to understand changes in practices on farms as collective actions, through the study of relationships activated by farmers in order to have access to different types of resources during their trajectory. Thus, our work feeds the literature mobilizing the method of quantified narratives for the analysis of farm transition trajectories, which we modulate by focusing on the trajectory of a […]

Collective dimension of social innovation projects: the contribution of relational chains

Marie Ferru ; Jade Omer.
Numerous projects, which today are described as social innovations, are being developed in response to the recent crises to meet various unsatisfied social needs (housing, climate, ageing, inequalities, etc.). Their highly collective nature implies a better understanding of the ways in which the partners involved in these projects are connected, which we propose to do using the relational chain method. The data collected using this method highlights the significant use of non-personal arrangements (circles and calls for projects) to obtain the support of institutions (local authorities) or organisations (foundations); interpersonal relationships—essentially professional—appear to be mobilised less frequently and mainly to access the world of research.

A Precursor of Digital Humanities ? The First Automated Analysis of an Ancient Economic Network (Gardin & Garelli, 1961). Implementation, Theorization, Reception

Sébastien Plutniak.
From as early as the 1950s, J.C. Gardin's work spanned both archaeology and the emerging automation of numerical computation and documentation. In 1961, with P. Garelli, he published the first automated application of graph theory to historical materials, working from Assyrian cuneiform tablets documenting economic relations. This work was then widely ignored both in archeology and network analysis. However, in the past twenty years, socio-epistemic claims related to the growth of the Internet and computing (digital humanities, computational archaeology, etc.) have brought a surge of interest in Gardin's work, which is now regarded as pioneering. Working from archive materials and publications, this paper shows how a historical sociology of scientific writings can be relevant to the history of automation in historical sciences. The paper examines Gardin's recognition as an influential forerunner of computational archeology, showing that : 1) although Gardin had access to resources (financial, instrumental, etc.) that were rare at the time, and could have provided material for the foundation of a school or a specialty, he did not however pursue this ambition; 2) the demonstrative purposes pursued by Gardin with his study of 1961 economic networks varied between the 1960s (demonstrating the relevance of non-numerical computation) and the 1980s (legitimizing simulation in the social sciences), but were never concerned with network analysis as such.